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Based on our presentation on behalf of IFPRI at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Technical Conference on the Low Levels of Genetically Modified Crops in International Food and Feed Trade held March 20-21, 2014 in Rome, Italy and based on responses from different stakeholders, we felt necessary to share not only the presentation but also our comments to the slides and additional information about the presentation.



We can also observe this effect with the case of fungal resistant bananas in Uganda. Every year of delay, Uganda foregoes potential annual social benefits of 200 million US$ for a food security, staple crop.

Trade in East highland bananas, specific type planted in Uganda, is not as high, mostly with parts of Kenya and Tanzania, but regulatory issues wil have an impact on the potential deployment of this technology, including the issue of LLPs.


  • Kikulwe, E.M., E. Birol, J. Wesseler, J. Falck-Zepeda. 2011. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda. Agricultural Economics.
  • Kilkuwe, Enoch; Wesseler, Justus, Falck-Zepeda, José. “Introducing a genetically modified banana in Uganda : Social benefits, costs, and consumer perceptions.” 2008.  IFPRI Discussion Paper 767. Washington, D.C. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/ifpridp00767.asp
  • Falck Zepeda, J., J. Yorobe, Jr., B. Amir Husin, A. Manalo, E. Lokollo, G. Ramon, P. Zambrano and Sutrisno “Estimates and Implications of the Costs of Compliance with Biosafety Regulations in Developing Countries: The case of the Philippines and Indonesia,”. GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology and Agriculture in the Food Chain. Volume 3, Issue 1 January/February/March 2012 http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/gmcrops/article/18727/?nocache=668315680