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Based on our presentation on behalf of IFPRI at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Technical Conference on the Low Levels of Genetically Modified Crops in International Food and Feed Trade held March 20-21, 2014 in Rome, Italy and based on responses from different stakeholders, we felt necessary to share not only the presentation but also our comments to the slides and additional information about the presentation.


Summarizing the results of our research examining selected issues and policy options.The 0% policies are valid with high perceived risk and where there is not trust in the exporter(s) regulations. In turn, 100% pass are valid when price matters more than anything else. The country in essence disregard any other consideration except for price. Let me also clarify that although Gruere indicates that there is no probability of trade disruptions with 100% pass policy, obviously this is no an absolute, but it is in practice. highly unlikely.

In conclusion establishing, LLP policies are then valid intermediates between 0% and 100% pass and are the best solution from an economic perspective. This in essence is then a call to consider LLP policies that have a realistic LLP tolerance level distinct from zero. These results also show, that this is a manageable issue particularly if countries address the issue not only of the LLP tolerance level, but also building trust in other countries’ regulations including exporter, and contribute to reducing approval delays and/or the cost of compliance with this and other regulations. 


Gruere, G. 2011. Asynchronous Approvals of GM Products and the Codex Annex: What Low Level Presence Policy for Vietnam?. International Food and Agricultural Trade Council Discussion Paper.