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Based on our presentation on behalf of IFPRI at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Technical Conference on the Low Levels of Genetically Modified Crops in International Food and Feed Trade held March 20-21, 2014 in Rome, Italy and based on responses from different stakeholders, we felt necessary to share not only the presentation but also our comments to the slides and additional information about the presentation.



These three variables in turn can be determined in turn by different issues. For example the impact of price on economic welfare may be affected by the probability of rejection and the timing of approvals. In turn, risk may be affected by the trust in exporter regulations and the type of product. Cost of compliance can be affected by the tolerance level and the enforcement capacity.

Note that these issues may have different impacts of economic welfare in different countries.