, ,

With some colleagues at IFPRI/PBS and through our extensive network of national and regional partners, we have compiled a list of those GM technologies undergoing confined field trials in Africa. Some, but not all, may come into commercialization approval within the 5 year time horizon described in the background document.  We have not included technologies currently in contained use evaluation such as the bio-fortified sorghum and weevil resistant sweet potato in Kenya,  a viral resistant tomato in Egypt, and several technologies being tried in South Africa which we could not identify proponent or stage. Note that many of these technologies are public-private and public-public partnerships. Even those listed with one proponent, usually means that is the main proponent, but is likely to be a consortium of research organizations.

Table of advanced GM technologies in Africa

Country Crop Trait under testing Stage Partners
Uganda Maize Drought tolerance CFT, 2nd season NARO,AATF
Uganda Banana Bacterial wilt resistance CFT NARO,AATF,IITA
Uganda Banana Nutrition enhancement (Fe and Pro-vitamin A) CFT NARO, QUT
Uganda Cassava Virus resistance CFT, 2nd season NARO,Danforth Plant Sci. Center,IITA,
Uganda Cotton Bollworm resistance and herbicide tolerance CFT, 3rd season NARO
South Africa Maize Drought Tolerant African Agricultural Technology Foundation(AATF), Monsanto (USA)
South Africa Cassava Biofortified and modified starch HarvestPlus
South Africa Sugarcane virus resistance, increased yields, alternative products
South Africa Maize Maize IR resistant to MSV U.of CapeTown,Pannar Seed Co.
South Africa Potatoes IR Agricultural Research Council (South Africa),Michigan State University (US)
South Africa Sorghum Biofortified ICRISAT, the U of Pretoria, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), the Agricultural Research Council for South Africa (ARC), the Burkina Faso Environmental and Agricultural Research Institute (INERA) and the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) in Nigeria
Burkina Faso Cowpea IR CFT AATF, NGICA,IITA,CSIR,Monsanto
Egypt Maize, Zea mays Insect resistance CFT Pioneer, AGERI
Egypt Cotton, Gossypium barbadense  Insect resistant CFTs ARC
Egypt Wheat, Triticum durum L. Drought tolerant CFTs AGERI
Egypt Wheat, Triticum durum L. Fungal resistance CFTs AGERI
Egypt Wheat, Triticum durum L. Salt tolerant CFTs AGERI
Egypt Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.  Viral resistance CFTs AGERI
Kenya Maize, Zea mays l. Insect resistance (Insect Resistant Maize for Africa against stem borers) CFTs KARI, CIMMYT, Monsanto, University of Ottawa, Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Development
Kenya Maize, Zea mays l. Drought Tolerance (WEMA) CFTs 2nd season AATF,CIMMYT,KARI,Monsanto,Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’-Howard G. Buffett Foundation
Kenya Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Insect resistance (bollworms) CFTs completed, Environmental release application to be submitted in 2012 KARI/Monsanto
Kenya Cassava, Manihot esculenta Disease resistance (cassava mosaic viral disease) CFT 1st season KARI, Danforth Plant Science Center
Kenya BioCassva Plus BioCassva Plus, Enhanced levels of iron and zinc, protein, Vitamin A and E CFT 1st season Donald Danforth Center,KARI,IITA,CIAT
Nigeria Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Increased level of beta-carotene (Provitamin A) CFT, 3rd season DDPSC, NRCRI
Nigeria Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Nutrition enhancement for increase in iron level CFT 2nd season DDPSC, NRCRI
Nigeria Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Insect resistance CFT, 3rd season AATF,NGCIA,IITA,Purdue University, Monsanto,Rockefeller Foundation USAID,DFID,CSIR, INERA,The Kirkhouse Trust,IAR
Nigeria Sorghum (sorghum bicolor) Bioavailability of iron, zinc, protein, vitamin A CFT Africa Harvest, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., CSIRO,ICRISAT, AATF,FARA, University of Pretoria, Agricultural Research Council, UCB,IAR

In terms of the impact of these technologies in the pipeline, the focus of many of these crops will be on crops and traits with an increased emphasis on food security and nutritional considerations –some of these technologies are anticipated to also raise income as cash crops-  so the expectation is that the economic impact will be at least the same if not better than what we have observed with existing technologies. We have conducted an extensive literature review of existing publications with an identifiable degree of peer review (Smale et al. 2009). You can review the literature database here http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/search/collection/p15738coll6/searchterm/%20case%20studies/mode/exact) . There are approximately 252 papers with and identifiable peer review approval process in this database.

Our conclusion in the Smale et al  (2009) review is that that the evidence from ex ante and ex post studies show there are( potential and observed) tangible net economic benefits to the adoption of GM crop technologies in developed and developing countries. These results are quite variable in terms of crops, traits, location and producers. These same studies have shown other direct and indirect impacts derived from the adoption of this technology including reductions in some pesticides while others may increase, a shift to less toxic chemistries, support of integrated pest management, adoption of sustainable agricultural practices such as low-till and no-till agriculture and others. Our conclusions for the 2009 literature review were later supported by meta-analysis conducted by Areal et al. 2012 and Finger et al 2011 specifically for cotton, and by our multiple socioeconomic studies which we have conducted on site. More on the impact issue later.

References on socioeconomic impacts of GM crops

Areal, F. J., L. Riesgo, and E. Rodriguez-Cerezo.. 2012. Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a meta-analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science, doi:10.1017/S0021859612000111

Finger, R. , N. El Benni, T. Kaphengst, C. Evans, S. Herbert, B. Lehmann , S. Morse, and N. Stupak. 2011. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops. Sustainability, 743-762. doi:10.3390/su3050743

Smale, Melinda; Zambrano, Patricia; Gruère, Guillaume P.; Falck-Zepeda, Jose´ Benjamin; Matuschke, Ira; Horna, Daniela; Nagarajan, Latha; Yerramareddy, Indira; Jones, Hannah. Measuring the economic impacts of transgenic crops in developing agriculture during the first decade : Approaches, findings, and future directions. 2009. Food Policy Review 10. Washington, D.C. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pv10.pdf http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/0896295117FPRev10

Special Issue AgbioForum “Farmers and Researchers Discovering Biotech Crops: Experiences Measuring Economic Impacts among New Adopters” Melinda Smale and José Falck-Zepeda, Guest Editors, Vol 15, Num 2, 2012. www.agbioforum.org