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Although this paper is a bit out of date as Burkina Faso has indeed adopted Bt/RR cotton, the discussion related to the institutional aspects that may define and/or shape adoption, diffusion and use -thus have a direct influence on impact- are still valid. Countries who are considering approving such technology may want to review which issues are relevant in their context. The issue is trying to maximize the potential benefits from adoption after the technology has passed the existing biosafety regulatory approval process.

Some countries in West Africa are considering the potential adoption of insect resistant cotton. Burkina Faso has already approved commercial cultivation of this technology. This paper presents the results
of a an socio economic impact assessment of the potential adoption of insect resistant cotton in West Africa using an augmented economic surplus model to consider risk and parameter uncertainty. Model considers changes in parameters such as technology fees, regulatory lags, and adoption patterns. Results show these are important in shaping the average response but also its distribution. Countries in West Africa definitively lose from not adopting Bt cotton. Adoption with reduced or no technology fees gathered the most gains to producers and for society as a whole. The paper develops a discussion of the potential policy and institutional factors affecting adoption outcomes.

Falck Zepeda, J.B., D. Horna, P. Zambrano and M. Smale. “Policy and Institutional Factors and the Distribution of Economic Benefits and Risk from the Adoption of Insect Resistant (Bt) Cotton in West Africa.” 2008. Asian Biotechnology Development Review 11(1):1-32.